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Stroke


Stroke is a medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted. This can happen due to a blocked blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or the bursting of a blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke).


Strokes can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the area of the brain affected and the severity of the event. These symptoms can include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech; trouble seeing with one or both eyes; trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance; and severe headache with no known cause.

Strokes can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. It's important to recognize the signs and symptoms of a stroke and to seek help as soon as possible.


There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of having a stroke, including:

  • High blood pressure: This is the most important risk factor for stroke and is responsible for about 50% of all strokes.

  • Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of stroke by damaging blood vessels and making them more likely to become blocked.

  • Atrial fibrillation: This is a type of heart rhythm disorder that can increase the risk of stroke.

  • Diabetes: People with diabetes have an increased risk of stroke because high blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels.

  • High cholesterol: High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of stroke by causing fatty deposits to build up in the blood vessels.

  • Family history: A family history of stroke can increase a person's risk.

  • Age: The risk of stroke increases as a person gets older.

  • Physical inactivity and obesity: People who are physically inactive and overweight have a higher risk of stroke.

  • Alcohol and drug use: Excessive alcohol consumption and drug use can increase the risk of stroke.

  • Previous stroke or heart attack: People who have had a stroke or heart attack are at higher risk of having another stroke.

It's important to identify and manage these risk factors to reduce the risk of having a stroke. Lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and quitting smoking, can help lower the risk of stroke. Medications and medical procedures may also be recommended for those at high risk.


The symptoms of a stroke can vary depending on the type of stroke and the area of the brain affected. Some common signs and symptoms of a stroke include:

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body

  • Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech

  • Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes

  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination

  • Severe headache with no known cause

  • Sudden trouble with coordination, such as difficulty writing or buttoning clothes

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as prompt treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications. If you think someone is having a stroke, it is important to call emergency services right away, as every minute counts when it comes to treating a stroke.

The term "time is brain" is often used to emphasize the importance of seeking treatment as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms.


The diagnosis of a stroke usually begins with a physical examination and a review of the patient's medical history. The doctor will ask about the symptoms, including when they started and how they have progressed. They will also perform a neurological examination to assess the person's mental function, muscle strength, and coordination.


Diagnostic tests that may be performed to confirm a stroke include:

  • CT scan: A CT scan is a type of X-ray that can quickly show the doctor whether a stroke is caused by bleeding in the brain or a blood clot.

  • MRI: An MRI is a type of scan that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and surrounding tissues.

  • Carotid ultrasonography: This test uses sound waves to create a picture of the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.

  • Angiography: This test involves injecting a dye into the blood vessels of the brain and taking X-rays to see if there is a blockage.

  • Blood tests: Blood tests can help determine if there are any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the stroke, such as high cholesterol levels or a heart rhythm problem.

Based on the results of these tests, the doctor will be able to determine the type of stroke and the best course of treatment. Treatment for stroke may involve medications, such as blood thinners or clot-busting drugs, or procedures such as surgery or angioplasty to remove blockages in the blood vessels. Rehabilitation and physical therapy may also be necessary to help the person recover from the effects of the stroke.


The treatment of stroke depends on the type of stroke and the extent of the damage to the brain.

The goals of treatment include reducing the risk of further strokes, managing symptoms, and helping the person recover as much function as possible.

  • Medications: If the stroke is caused by a blood clot, a clot-busting drug called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be administered within the first few hours after symptoms begin. In some cases, anticoagulant medications may be given to prevent clots from forming or to reduce the risk of a second stroke.

  • Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blood clot or to repair a damaged blood vessel. For example, a procedure called carotid endarterectomy may be performed to remove plaque from the carotid artery and reduce the risk of a future stroke.

  • Interventional procedures: Interventional procedures, such as angioplasty or stenting, can be used to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels in the brain and improve blood flow.

  • Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation is an important part of stroke recovery and can include physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy. The goal of rehabilitation is to help the person recover as much function as possible and regain independence.

  • Lifestyle changes: Making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, and controlling high blood pressure, can help reduce the risk of having another stroke and improve overall health.

It's important to note that recovery from a stroke can be a long and complex process, and the type and intensity of treatment will depend on the individual's specific needs and condition. A multidisciplinary team, including a neurologist, rehabilitation specialist, and other healthcare professionals, will work together to create a personalised treatment plan that best meets the person's needs.


Steps you can take to reduce your risk of having a stroke:

Control high blood pressure: High blood pressure is a major risk factor for stroke, so it's important to have your blood pressure checked regularly and work with your doctor to keep it under control. This may involve lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and quitting smoking, as well as taking medications as prescribed.

  • Treat atrial fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation is a type of heart rhythm disorder that increases the risk of stroke, so it's important to have it diagnosed and treated. This may involve taking medications to control the heart rate or having a procedure to restore a normal heart rhythm.

  • Manage other medical conditions: Other medical conditions, such as diabetes and high cholesterol, can increase the risk of stroke, so it's important to work with your doctor to manage these conditions effectively.

  • Stop smoking: Smoking increases the risk of stroke and heart disease, so quitting smoking is one of the best things you can do for your health.

  • Exercise regularly: Regular exercise can help lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of heart disease, and improve overall health, all of which can reduce the risk of stroke.

  • Eat a healthy diet: A diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, low in saturated and trans fats, and rich in whole grains can help reduce the risk of stroke and other chronic diseases.

  • Limit alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of stroke and other health problems, so it's important to limit alcohol intake to moderate levels.

  • Control stress: Stress can increase the risk of stroke, so it's important to find healthy ways to manage stress, such as exercise, relaxation techniques, and mindfulness practices.

Remember, it's never too late to make positive changes to improve your health and reduce your risk of stroke. By making healthy lifestyle choices and working with your doctor, you can help protect yourself and your loved ones from this serious and life-threatening condition.




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